The present study aims to elaborate the facts and myths associated with one of the earlier primitive era human species called Homo sapiens, on the foundations of the researches had been carried out to explore the characteristics of the afore-stated species. One of the most important reasons behind conducting study on the above-mentioned topic includes its strong relationship with the biological and socio-cultural evolution processes observed by human species during the course of time on the one side, and the curiosity of the contemporary era sciences in discovering the individual and collective traits and habitats associated with the primitive human species on the other. In addition, their extensive similarity with the modern era human species also invites the inquisitiveness of the scientists, researchers and theorists to unearth the facts related to the life of Homo sapiens.
Homo sapiens are claimed to be one of the most distinguished and brilliant products of biological evolution; which used to exist in different parts of Western Europe as well as some areas of Africa, present-day Middle East and Far East, during 300,000 to 40,000 years ago. Discovery and examination of the excavations from the ancient areas including Swanscombe, Aroga, Bilzingsleben and others, depict the skulls and skeletons attributed to this ancient era human species of this specific era, and endorses their dissimilarity with their predecessor species Homo erectus in physical appearance and cultural traits. Homo sapiens have been categorised in two main sections including Homo sapiens neanderthalensis and their successors Homo sapiens sapiens, among which the former possessed the characteristics attributed to both Homo erectus and Homo sapiens sapiens. Somehow, contrary to the Homo erectus species, Homo sapiens had larger skull size, as well as explicit differences in the texture of forehead, jaw, teeth and limb bones in comparison with their predecessor human species. Moreover, texture of their countenances also differed from Homo erectus species, which looked more identical with the apes rather than humans in appearance and movement.
Homo sapiens had to undergo a wide range of severe and intense environmental circumstances, particularly during winter, where they used to build their shelters out of fuel, bones and skins because of the unavailability of wood during that season. The excavations revealed the very fact that the Homo sapiens were very intelligent species, which introduced several innovative socioeconomic and cultural patterns, including burying their dead ones, invention of a few flake tools for hunting and gathering, construction of safer caves and shelters, and the promotion of nomadic culture in accordance with the fast altering circumstances. These distinctive physical and cultural characteristics prove the Homo sapiens to be the species that could be compared to the present-day humans in intellect and acumen.